Plant diseases can be prevented or limited thanks to:
- Agronomic operations: deep plowing, pruning, crop rotations, fertilization;
- Mechanical systems: removing parts of the plant affected by the disease or eliminating phytophagous;
- Physical systems: chromotropic, light or pheromone traps for the mass capture of insects;
- Biological systems: releasing or promoting the presence of other living organisms in the environment that predate phytophagous;
- Chemical operations: use of phytopharmaceuticals.
Fertilization can also be carried out using different techniques. It is possible to increase the physical-chemical soil fertility by giving it organic matter, or to increase physical fertility by carrying out mineral fertilizations or green manures.
Similarly, irrigation can be realized with several types of planting and timing, to be adapted to the crop and the specific situation according to various criteria.
Modern crop management strategies aim to optimise the use of input, preferring non-chemical ones where possible. The goal is:
- reducing crop management costs,
- improving quality of products,
- safeguarding the animal and plant species in the agroecosystem, which maintains its resilience.
Consequently, it is important to choose the appropriate management techniques, establish the quantity of necessary input for crops, and especially the most suitable times for distributing them.
Effective strategies require continuous quantitative monitoring, which provides up-to-date information on outbreaks, phenological status of crops, their nutritional or water stress. This is not always feasible, as it involves intensive crop scouting, laboratory analyses, and considerable scientific knowledge: slow, very expensive, and consequently inefficient methods.